Trying to find the origin of the universe
Scientists have been searching for the mystery of what happened at the beginning of the origin of the
universe. Understanding the origin of the universe in the laboratory requires a considerable amount of
energy and precision.
Scientists have been searching for the mystery of what happened at the beginning of the origin of the universe. Understanding the origin of the universe in the laboratory requires a considerable amount of energy and precision. Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Nuclear Research Organization (CERN) in Switzerland are trying to unravel the mystery with a precision measurement system.
The Standard Model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles that make up the universe and the forces acting between them. These elementary particles include ‘quarks’. There are six types of quarks: up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom. Similarly there are six ‘leptons’, which include electron, muon and tau. All quarks and leptons also have antimatter partners. The Standard Model has been experimentally verified to have incredible accuracy, but it has some significant drawbacks. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was formed 13.8 billion years ago. This theory states that matter and antimatter should be produced in equal amounts from this event. Various research has revealed the fact that the universe is made up almost entirely of matter and this is a good thing, because when antimatter and matter mix, they destroy in an instant. One of the biggest questions in physics is why is there more matter than antimatter? Were there processes going on at the beginning of the origin of the universe that were more conducive to matter than antimatter? To find the answer, we have studied a process where matter turns into antimatter and antimatter turns into matter.
According to theoretical physicists, quarks combine to form particles called baryons— which include the protons and neutrons that make up the atomic nucleus. Apart from this, quarks and antiquarks combine to form mesons. Mesons with zero electric charge undergo a phenomenon called mixing, whereby they spontaneously transform into their own antimatter particles. In this process the quark turns into anti-quark and the anti-quark turns in to quark. These can do this because of quantum machines. This machines governs the universe ion the small scale. According to this theory, particles can be in many different forms at the same time, essentially a mixture of many different particles. this characteristics is called superposition.
Accurate measurements are essential to trace the origin of the universe. To know why the universe produced less antimatter than matter, we need to know more about the asymmetry in the production of both. Some unstable particles destroy differently than their respective antimatter particles. This must have been the reason, due to which there is an excessive amount of matter in the universe. After a prolonged shutdown, the LHC will be operational next year and the upgraded new LHCB detector will collect more data, further increasing the sensitivity of the measurements. In the meantime, theoretical physicists are working on new calculations to explain this result. We may not yet fully solve the mysteries of the universe, but the new advanced LHCb detector will open the door to precise measurements, which have the potential to detect unknown phenomena.